What's new for the 2022 tax-return season?
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Ready or not, tax-return reporting has changed yet again for the 2022 tax-return season (income received in 2021). Meanwhile, the impact of the 2018 changes in tax rates and brackets continues. For employees with income from stock compensation or sales of company stock, the discussion below explains what you need to know about tax returns for the 2021 tax year.
Notable Changes In Brief
The IRS Form 1040 for 2021 remains at 38 lines. It gradually expanded to that length after being condensed in 2018 from 79 lines to 23 in an effort make the tax return "postcard size." However, while the length of Form 1040 hasn't changed, the IRS has modified some of the "schedules" that funnel information to Form 1040:
Schedule 1 ("Additional Income and Adjustments to Income") is where you should enter (under "Other Income") the amount of any stock compensation you earned as an employee that was omitted from your Form W-2.
Schedule 2 ("Additional Taxes") now has dedicated lines for amounts coming from the tax form for the Additional Medicare Tax on compensation income and the tax form for the Net Investment Income Tax (e.g. on capital gains and dividends).
Schedule 3 ("Additional Credits and Payments") now has a specific line for any credit for prior minimum tax. This applies to anyone with incentive stock options (ISOs) who has triggered the alternative minimum tax (AMT).
The totals on Schedule 1, Schedule 2, and Schedule 3 of Form 1040 appear on different lines on those schedules but are entered on the same lines of Form 1040.
These changes are discussed in detail below.
Highlights Of Form 1040
Below are key aspects of the Form 1040 tax return, its associated schedules and forms, and more details on changes for the 2022 tax season.
Stock compensation, along with salary income reported on Form W-2, is entered on Line 1 of Form 1040.
2. Capital Gain Or Loss
If you sold shares during the 2021 tax year, you enter each sale on Form 8949 and report the total on Schedule D. You then report that Schedule D total on Line 7 of Form 1040.
3. Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)
A concern for anyone with incentive stock options (ISOs), the AMT is calculated on Form 6251. The spread at ISO exercise is reported on Line 2i if the stock was not sold during the calendar year of exercise.
If the ISO stock that triggered the AMT was sold, the difference from the ordinary tax is reported on Line 2k.
You enter your Form 6251 calculation on Line 1 of Form 1040's Schedule 2 ("Tax"). You attach Form 6251 to Schedule 2. The totals from Part I of Schedule 2 go into Line 17 on Form 1040.
The AMT credit that is generated for an ISO exercise that triggers the AMT is recouped through Form 8801, as it was in the past. The amount from Line 25 of Form 8801 goes into Schedule 3 ("Non-Refundable Credits") on Line 6b, "Credit for prior year minimum tax." This is the first tax year the AMT credit has its own line on the schedule.
The totals from Part I of Schedule 3 go into Line 20 of Form 1040.
4. IRS Form 1099-NEC For Nonemployees
For employees, tax withholding occurs at NQSO exercise or restricted stock/RSU vesting, and the income appears on Form W-2. For nonemployees, such as consultants and directors, there is no withholding and the income from exercise or vesting now appears on IRS Form 1099-NEC ("Nonemployee Compensation") as self-employment income. (Before 2020, it was Form 1099-MISC.)
Income is reported on Form 1099-NEC in Boxes 1 and 7. You report this income on Schedule C of your Form 1040 tax return. As the income is self-employment income, you also need to calculate on Schedule SE any Social Security and Medicare taxes that you owe.
If your company does not report your employee stock compensation on Form W-2, the revised Schedule 1 for the 2021 tax year indicates that the amount goes in the "Other Income" section on Line 8j ("Stock Options").
The list of items "a" through "p" (plus "z") under "Other Income" on Schedule 1 is new for the 2021 tax year. Previously, taxpayers listed the type of other income and the amount, or put the details in a supplemental attachment. The total for other income from Schedule 1 goes into Line 8 of Form 1040.
Alert: The IRS expects you to report and pay tax on income mistakenly left off your Form W-2. An error by your employer does not release you from that obligation.
In the instructions for Form 1040 (pages 86–87), the IRS has made it clear the section "Other Income" on Schedule 1 is where to put any employee stock option income that is not on your Form W-2 and is therefore not reported on Line 1 of Form 1040:
Line 8j—Stock options. Enter on line 8j any income from the exercise of stock options not otherwise reported on your Form 1040 or 1040-SR, line 1.
Before this development, some tax experts thought this "Other Income" category was not for compensation-related income (only for non-wage income). Instead, they believed taxpayers needed to add the unreported W-2 income to wages reported on Line 1 of Form 1040. However, a non-match of W-2 Box 1 and Form 1040 Line 1 can raise red flag with IRS computers. According to the revised Schedule 1 and instructions, the proper reporting is on Schedule 1, assuming your company does not send you a corrected W-2.
Unresolved issues with this change in Schedule 1 include the question of how broadly to read the IRS instructions. It can be assumed to apply to all stock options, and probably ESPPs too, as the IRS often uses the term exercise for purchase. However, the instructions are not clear about how to handle restricted stock/RSUs. A narrow reading of the instructions for "income from the exercise of stock options" would have it apply only to nonqualified stock options and nonqualified ESPPs. That's because for restricted stock/RSUs it is the vesting that triggers the taxable event, and with ISOs and Section 423/tax-qualified ESPPs it is the sale, not the exercise/purchase.
If you are not certain that all equity compensation left off the W-2 goes on Line 8j, then it can fit into Line 8z ("Other Income. List type and amount").
The reporting for nonemployees would not be on the W-2, as explained in the discussion of Form 1099-NEC above.
6. Estimated Taxes
The flat rate for federal supplemental withholding that applies to stock compensation may not cover the actual taxes you owe according to your marginal tax rate. You may have paid estimated taxes because of income from restricted stock/RSU vesting, an NQSO exercise, an ISO exercise/sale, or an ESPP purchase/sale. On the 2021 Form 1040, estimated tax payments are reported on Line 26.
7. Additional Medicare Taxes
An extra 3.8% tax applies on top of the usual capital gains tax for people with yearly modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) of more than $200,000 (more than $250,000 for married joint filers). The tax is based on the lesser of either (1) the amount your MAGI exceeds this threshold or (2) your net investment income. You both pay this tax and file IRS Form 8960 with your annual tax return.
For these same taxpayers with high incomes, the Medicare tax also rose under the Affordable Care Act. The rate increased from 1.45% to 2.35%. Regardless of your tax-filing status, companies must withhold the tax on compensation paid in excess of $200,000 during a calendar year (e.g. it doesn't matter whether you are married and your combined joint income with your spouse is under $250,000). After the Additional Medicare Tax has been withheld, you must file IRS Form 8959 with your tax return, both to ensure enough tax has been paid and to see whether you are eligible for a refund or a credit. For more on these taxes, see a related FAQ.
On Schedule 2 for the 2021 tax year, these taxes are now reported on their own lines. Line 11 ("Additional Medicare Tax") is for the tax from Form 8959, Additional Medicare Tax. Line 12 ("Net Investment Income Tax") is for the tax from Form 8960, Net Investment Income Tax—Individuals, Estates, and Trusts.
8. Recovery Rebate Credit
To mitigate the economic impact of the pandemic, Congress provided a third stimulus payment made in 2021, with eligibility phased out according to income from your last processed tax return. The third round of Economic Impact Payments were advance payments of the 2021 Recovery Rebate Credit claimed on the 2021 tax return. If your prior year's income didn't qualify you for the third Economic Impact Payment or you did not receive the full amount, you may be eligible for the Recovery Rebate Credit, depending on your 2021 tax information.
Income spikes from stock compensation in past years may have disqualified you from this payment, even if in 2021 you resigned or were laid off or furloughed. Should this be your situation, you can instead claim the Recovery Rebate Credit on Line 30 of Form 1040. In further good news, you have no recapture of the stimulus checks you received, should your 2021 income be higher than in the past, perhaps (again) from stock compensation.
In early 2022, the IRS will send Letter 6475 that contains the total amount of the third Economic Impact Payment and any Plus-Up Payments received. With your other tax records, you should keep this and any other IRS letters about stimulus payments. You will need the amount of your third Economic Impact Payment and any Plus-Up Payments received to calculate the correct 2021 Recovery Rebate Credit amount when you file your tax return.
Rules For Cost-Basis Reporting
For stock sales, there is no change in the IRS rules on how the cost-basis information is reported on Form 1099-B. For grants made in 2014 and later years, brokers are prohibited from including equity compensation income (which appears on Form W-2) in the cost basis reported on Form 1099-B. This creates confusion and complications with the reporting of stock sales from stock compensation on IRS Form 8949 and Schedule D.
For guidance on the tax-return reporting for sales of shares acquired through stock compensation, including annotated diagrams of Form 8949 and Schedule D, see the section Reporting Company Stock Sales in this website's Tax Center.
Additional Tax-Reporting Resources
The Tax Center has a section that gathers our popular annotated diagrams of Form W-2. These can help you make sense of Form W-2 (which companies issue in January) when the reporting on the form includes income you received from stock options, restricted stock/RSUs, or employee stock purchase plans.
If you exercised ISOs in 2021, your company will send you Form 3921. If you purchased shares through an ESPP during the year, your company will send you Form 3922. Employers send these forms in January. This website has articles and FAQs with annotated diagrams of Form 3921 and Form 3922 that can help you understand these documents.
For details on the 2018 tax changes, which are still in effect and impact tax rates on stock compensation, see the related article elsewhere on this website.
If you participate in a nonqualified deferred compensation (NQDC) plan, see our sibling website myNQDC.com for educational guidance on tax-return reporting.